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Showing posts with the label Policy

Presenting at CSHE, UC Berkeley on international student mobility in new political context

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I am honored to be presenting at an international conference celebrating 60th anniversary of the Center for Studies in Higher Education at UC Berkeley. The event led by John Aubrey Douglass, co-editor of Envisioning the Asian New Flagship University - Its Past and Vital Future and CSHE Senior Research Fellow – Public Policy and Higher Education will take place on November 16 and 17.

The conference theme of "New Nationalism and Universities Global Perspectives on Politics and Policy and the Future of Higher Education" is set in the new political context which is altering various aspects of higher education including flow of global talent, institutional autonomy, and financial vitality of public universities. CSHE event will convene leading scholars and practitioners to reflect and analyze following questions comparatively, from sub-Sahara Africa, to Europe, South America, the US and Asia, and with reference to five interrelated “Policy Realms.”

Academic Freedom and Civil Libe…

Latest data and statistics on Indian higher education and new regulatory reform

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Could Indian government transform the future of Indian higher education with its latest reform proposal of bringing two leading regulators under one umbrella? In a recent update, the  the Human Resources Development (HRD) Ministry which is responsible for higher education has proposed a new body--Higher Education Empowerment Regulation Agency (HEERA)--which will merge two leading regulatory bodies.

In its current regulatory structure, the two regulatory bodies--University Grants Commission (UGC) and All India Council of Technical Education (AICTE)--are often at loggerheads in terms of their jurisdictions and approaches. UGC is primarily responsible for universities sector while AICTE is responsible for engineering and business colleges which are affiliated to universities.

They both have gone through their phases of confusion and corruption. For example there was a tussle between UGC and AICTE on who has power to regulate technical education (engineering and business) in India. Then …

Making India as a destination of choice for international students: Institutional strategies and best practices

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12th FICCI HIGHER EDUCATION SUMMIT will take place from November 10-12, 2016 in Delhi. The overarching theme of the conference is opportunities and challenges for attracting foreign students to India.

I will be participating in a session "Making 'Learn in India' Happen!" which will deliberate on making India the preferred choice of study for the international students. The panel comprises of following speakers:

Dr Rahul Choudaha, CEO, DrEducation, USA Prof Furqan Qamar, Secretary General, Association of Indian Universities (AIU) Mr Rakesh Ranjan, Joint Secretary, Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD) Mr Daniel C. Stoll, Associate Dean, Georgetown University Dr G Vishwanathan, Chancellor, VITDr Vidya Yeravdekar, Vice Chancellor, Symbiosis University 
I will focus three critical success factors for institutions:

Understanding diverse segments of international students Investing in international student experience Developing a profession on international education …

Defining the future of internationalisation in Europe

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A recent study entitled 'Internationalisation of Higher Education' in the European context provides a comprehensive perspective on what is the current state of internationalization is and what should it look like in future.

The study critically analyzed the key literature in the field of international higher education and coupled it with survey findings from three sources--IAU 4th Global Survey on Internationalisation of Higher Education, The EAIE Barometer: Internationalisation in Europe, and Delphi survey (with support from Robert Coelen).

The study funded by the European Parliament was undertaken by some of the leading researchers and thinkers in the field-Hans de Wit, Fiona Hunter, Laura Howard and Eva Egron-Pola. The blend of comprehensive background research along with deep expertise of the authors resulted in this influential, landmark publication.

The ten recommendations (I wonder, why it rhymes with ten commandments) of the study have the potential to create a more…

China's Economic and Education Ambitions on the New Silk Road

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Eugene Sebastian, deputy pro vice-chancellor, business international, RMIT University, Australia and I recently published an article entitled "Knowledge helps power China along the new Silk Road" in The Australian. Here is the excerpt:
 The Silk Road concept is not new. Chinese President Xi Jinping introduced the idea in 2013 during a visit to Kazakhstan and Indonesia. What is new is the use of education as a tool to help drive China’s regional economic ambitions.

China’s education strategy has three parts. First, Beijing has promised 10,000 new scholarships will be handed out every year to the countries along the Silk Road. Offering scholarships has worked in the past. Ten years ago, in support of its scaled-up engagement with Africa, Beijing introduced scholarships for African students, the numbers of which have more than doubled — as has its economic influence. China already provides a lot of scholarships to international students. In 2010, it sponsored almost 23,000 a…

How rankings impact institutional strategies and processes? research report from European University Association

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What is role of rankings in university strategies and processes? This is the central question of the recent research report released by European University Association and authored by Ellen Hazelkorn, Tia Loukkola and Therese Zhang.  The report entitled "Rankings in Institutional Strategies and Processes: Impact or Illusion?" is based on the survey of 171 higher education institutions from 39 European countries. It is a comprehensive and insightful report that shows that perceived impact of rankings is very high among different stakeholders despite their public denials.  More than half of all the respondents identified that they "have one or several persons at institution level who monitor(s) our position in the rankings regularly." Here are couple of data points indicating that institutional representatives perceive rankings to be of very high importance to prospective students:


The report asserts "...when an institution is analysing the importance of one ra…

Financial dependency on nonresident and international students: Case of University of California

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University of California is considering to increase tuition by up to 5% in each of the next five years. This was inevitable as the public funding continues to decrease. Here are couple of previous blog posts from 2012: Internationalization of public universities: Gaining momentum, overcoming challenges China, Saudi Arabia and public universities driving growth According to the University of California, "The new long-term stability plan for tuition and financial aid proposes that tuition will not increase more than 5 percent annually for five years. For 2015–16, that would mean an increase of $612. Tuition may increase by less than 5 percent — or not at all — depending on the level of state support." Given that the number of nonresident, including international students at UC campuses have increased at a clipping rate, there is a feeling among residents that they are being displaced. The UC highlights the value addition from nonresident fee that adds to the experiences of the …

Towards improved quality standards in transnational education

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The quality assurance mechanisms of transnational education (TNE) or cross-border education have not kept pace with the changes in the landscape of its activities and trends is the core argument of the article I co-authored with Richard J Edelstein, a research associate at the Center for Studies in Higher Education, University of California, Berkeley.

TNE is offered in a range of models, including branch campuses, licensed foreign degree programs provided by local institutions, articulation agreements, distance learning degrees and online degrees.
The variety of models is reflective of diverse contexts of source and destination countries, where demand from the emerging segment of ‘glocal’ students - who have aspirations to gain a global education experience, but want to remain in their local region/country - is creating new opportunities for institutions.
The landscape of TNE gets further complicated with the emergence of new distance learning technologies, such as MOOCs, that ar…

Will Indian higher education move from stifling regulation to authentic quality assurance?

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Indian higher education is in a state of flux due to an incoherent policy framework. For example, recent scrapping of the four-year degree program at the University of Delhi also affected private universities which were trying to bring four-year liberal arts program in India. What is appalling is that quality assurance framework in India is not only archaic and complex, but also lacks the capability to distinguish wheat from the chaff. While private higher education has its own challenges of quality, there are models of excellence that need to be showcased and encouraged to uplift the quality in private sector. Here is a guest blog from Dr. Vidya Rajiv Yeravdekar, head of Symbiosis International University-one of the premier private deemed-university-on unfair treatment of private higher education in India. She asks why toughest regulations are designed for private higher education which receives no funding while there is no oversight of public institutions which get all their finance…

How many students graduate from India every year?

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How many students are graduate from universities and colleges in India every year? This is one of the often asked question to me. While there is data available on the number of students enrolled in Indian higher education, I have not come across any official data on number of students completing the post-graduate (master's or doctoral) or graduate (bachelor's) degree.

Please click here to see latest data for 2016 and growth from 2008.

Based on the latest enrollment figures available for 2012-13, I have estimated the student enrollment and number of graduates earning degree every year. Based on previous data, I have assumed that one out of six students enrolled in bachelor's degree programs is in four-year engineering and rest are in three-year degrees. In addition, I have estimated the rate of growth or expansion of higher education enrollment at the rate of 15% per annum. 
This results in an estimated 26.5 million students enrolled in Indian higher education in 2014-15 an…

Three Solutions for Reforming Indian Higher Education

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Comparative and International Education Society’s (CIES) Higher Education Special Interest Group (HESIG) published its fall 2014 issue on BRIC countries. I have contributed an article on the reforming Indian higher education. I recommend three solutions to manage the complexity of the system: First, enforce higher standards of transparency and disclosures for private higher education institutions; second, strengthen the vocational and doctoral education pipeline; third, professionalize the sector through stronger institutional responsibility.


The special "BRIC" issue includes related articles on following themes: Chinese MOOCs on the Way: Opportunities and Challenges Yu Zhang, Yeqin Kang, and Manli Lia Higher Education in Brazil: Different Worlds and Diverse Beliefs, Elizabeth Balbachevsky Dispelling Illusions of Homogeneity: Growing Disparities in Higher Education Access in the Post-Soviet Regions, Anatoly OleksiyenkoPublic Funding and the Beginning of a New Era in High…

Financial contributions of international students: Contrasting approach of Louisiana & Ohio

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International students contributed $17.7 billion in tuition and fee to the U.S. universities and colleges in fall 2012, resulting in an increase of $5.4 billion in tuition contribution between fall 2008 to fall 2012. Post-recession public higher education systems went through sharp budget cuts. For example, educational appropriations per FTE (full time enrollment) decreased by 23% in five years between 2007-2012. In this scenario, international students have been becoming integral to financial well-being of many institutions, as they can charge high out-of state tuition fee. This out-of-state tuition fee had been increasing at a faster pace than average growth in international student enrollment (blue line), as shown by the steeper slope of increase in Economic Benefit (green shaded area), which includes contributions in the form of tuition and fee.

How to engage foreign universities in India?

The Foreign universities bill 2010 has attracted lot of curiosity and interest from media and universities to assess its potency and implications.  The bill is still pending after three years and it is pretty much written off. However, the recent executive order by the University Grants Commission allowing foreign universities to enter India has reignited the curiosity. In my commentary article "How to Engage Foreign Universities in India" published in Business Standard, I argue that the optimism is unfounded and it will again be a non-starter. The proposed order is not aligned with the reality of global higher education and the needs of Indian higher education. Here is the excerpt.

Statistics on Indian Higher Education 2012-2013

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What are the different types of degree-granting institutions (universities/colleges) in India? What is the enrollment of Indian students by level of education? What are the top fields of study for Indian Students? These are some of the frequently asked questions about data and statistics related to the size and scale of Indian higher education system. Given below is the latest information available from University Grants Commission of India.

Please click here to see latest data for 2016 and growth from 2008.



Making community colleges work in India: Building a community of change to fuel aspirations

What would it take for workforce development programs and vocational education to grow in India? A recent white paper released by Institute of International Education (IIE) and sponsored by the U.S. Embassy in India highlights the potential of learning from and applying the U.S. community college model in India.

The paper includes pieces from several experts. Mary Beth Hartenstine of Community Colleges for International Development in her chapter suggests that "When looking at larger scale, transformative projects, such as those expected to take place in India, U.S. colleges should look to partner through a consortium to alleviate some of the possible burdens of these global development projects." B. S. Panwar of M.S. Panwar Community College asserts that "While the government has taken note of the need for a community college system in India, there is no clear implementation plan. An autonomous agency is needed to act as a link between the government and the communit…

Impact of Supreme Court ruling on AICTE and MBA programs in India

In 2004, several colleges in the State of Tamil Nadu affiliated to Bharathidasan University and Manonmaniam Sundaranar University filed a case questioning the role of All Indian Council of Technical Education (AICTE)--Indian regulatory body for technical education including engineering and management.

One of the core question they asked was--"Whether the colleges affiliated to University are obliged to take separate permission/approval from the AICTE to run classes in Technical Courses in which the affiliated university of the colleges is not required to obtain any permission/approval under the AICTE Act itself?" (p.6)

Nine years later, the Supreme Court of India answered "... that the colleges who have opened the courses in question are affiliated to the universities. They are the controlling authorities with regard to their intake capacity for each course, the standards to be followed for each course, the syllabus of the course, the examination process etc.... Thus, …

H1 Visa: Facilitating education and employment pathways for economic development

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"If anything, we have too many high-tech workers: more than nine million people have degrees in a science, technology, engineering or math field, but only about three million have a job in one", opines Ross Eisenbrey of the Economic Policy Institute in The New York Times.

Mr. Eisenbrey argues against the value of expanding the H1-B temporary visa program in STEM fields and concludes "Bringing over more — there are already 500,000 workers on H-1B visas — would obviously darken job prospects for America’s struggling young scientists and engineers. But it would also hurt our efforts to produce more: if the message to American students is, 'Don’t bother working hard for a high-tech degree, because we can import someone to do the job for less,' we could do significant long-term damage to the high-tech educational system we value so dearly."

However, Mr. Eisenbrey's opinion misses important facts related to innovation and economic development that far outwei…

2012: The Year of Technology, Innovation and Regulations in Higher Education

Wish you a very happy, healthy and prosperous new year! 

2012 was a year when higher education sector faced increasing regulation but gained energy from technology and innovation.

In the US, rising debt-level and default rates, continued to increase the scrutiny of the for-profit sector and more recently there are still reports of emerging malpractices in the sector. One clear indicator of the pessimism around the sector is the stock prices of two leading for-profit companies--Apollo Group and DeVry--which are hovering close to their 52-week low. Earlier this year, both Apollo and DeVry announced job cuts and Apollo is shutting down some campuses to manage cost and switch students to online education.

The most “buzzing” technology-enabled educational innovation of the year was the concept free online education or MOOCs. It is putting pressure not only on traditional universities but also on for-profit institutions to assess their value offering and how to respond to MOOCs. As the E…

12 Things to Know about Asian Higher Education: ADB

Asian Development Bank posted 12 Things to Know in 2012: Higher Education on its website reasserting the issue of expansion of systems without preparedness to cope with quality and access. Here are the 12 issues and facts from ADB:
Over the last 20 years, higher education systems across Asia have experienced a sharply increased demand for access.Universities in many developing member countries suffer from inadequate infrastructure and weak instruction. Low quality is the greatest challenge facing higher educations systems across the region.Financial support for higher education dropped sharply in the 1990s and 2000s as the central development challenge of the era was to expand access to basic education.The World Bank has argued that sustainable poverty reduction will not be achieved without a renaissance in the higher education systems of developing countries.Countries that give individuals one additional year of education can boost productivity and raise economic output by 3% to 6% o…

Chinese and Indian Higher Education Enrollment Statistics

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China and India are the two largest higher education systems in the world with total enrollment of 29.1 million and 26.7 million students as compared to 21 million in the U.S in 2010.

India has the largest system in the world in terms of undergraduate enrollment of 19.8 m. students as compared to 12.7 m. in China and 10.4 million in the U.S.

In contrast, India has much smaller proportion of students enrolled in the vocational education. This highlights the skilled manpower shortage in India which is simply ballooning with time.

Indian sociocultural enviornment creates aspirations for bachelor's degree even if they do not offer employment opportunities. After earning bachelor's degree many continue for master's education in hope for subsequently getting jobs. This situation of postgraduate unemployment is also emerging in China. Indian students (2.7 m.) at master's level are also more than double as compared to China (1.2  m.).

This fascination for getting advanced…