Trends, insights and research to inform growth and innovation strategies in international higher education.

December 20, 2014

The Enrollment Management Challenges for University Presidents: ACE Special Issue

American Council on Education (ACE), which  represents the presidents of U.S. accredited, degree-granting institutions, released an insightful issue of The Presidency focused on higher education enrollment. The Presidency is ACE's flagship magazine "written for and about college and university presidents and chancellors."

It includes feature articles like:
Given the demographic challenges and public funding cuts, for many institutions, international student enrollment is becoming indispensable. The article shares the findings from a previous ACE webinar on trends with international student mobility and its implications for enrollment. It shares the WES' student segmentation research framework which identifies the four different types of students and their corresponding different needs, priorities and expectations.
CEOs of four diverse universities share their enrollment challenges and experiences in overcoming them. For example, the chancellor of North Carolina Central University shares the importance of engaging students through creative and interactive virtual communication tools as the University received more than 44 percent of it 10,000 applications via mobile devices.
This article shares the overarching demographic trends and its implications on enrollment patterns. The shrinking traditional college population and expanding non-traditional (adult, part-time) students will have implications on the purpose of and expectations from college experience. For example, Maryland’s Stevenson University, shifted its focus from liberal arts to career education, which resulted in dramatic enrollment growth.
Dr. Rahul Choudaha
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November 28, 2014

Latest Research on Transnational Education: Data and Insights from the UK

Two recent research reports released in the UK on transnational education (TNE or cross-border education) provide extensive data and insights on latest trends, models, challenges and complexities with TNE.
First, the Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE), which distributes public money to universities and colleges in England,  released a report entitled "Directions of travel: Transnational pathways into English higher education". Here is the link to download the report.  This report aims to focus more on understanding pathways taken by students pursuing TNE in home country to programs in the UK.
It highlights several interesting points including the fact that over a third of the international entrants (students) enrolling in first degree programs (bachelor's degree or undergraduate program) in 2012-13 came through programs delivered overseas by UK education providers through TNE models.
Another fact is that TNE activities grew more among second and third tier institutions who are more severely affected by post-recession environment of funding cuts and stricter immigration policies. For example, Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) with higher quality students ( measured by student scores) have a lower proportion of transnational students: 16 per cent (3,200 entrants) in 2012-13, compared with 55 per cent (5,900 entrants) for HEIs with lower scores (p.5).
In terms of source countries, China and Malaysia dominate the market but exhibit very different characteristics. While majority of Chinese students came for longer programs (two to three years) and continued to stay for postgraduate (master's) programs. In contrast, most Malaysian TNE students transferred for shorter duration (less than one year) and did not continue for postgraduate programs.
Aggregate offshore numbers (TNE) and major countries of origin for transnational students 2012-13
cross border education statistics and data from UK universities
Second, the Department for Business, Innovation & Skills, which focuses on business and economic growth, released a report entitled "Transnational education: value to the UK." The focus of this research is on quantifying the value in financial terms by understanding "the range, extent and value of [TNE] activity by UK institutions, and how this varies for each main delivery mode."
The report estimates that the revenue generated by the UK transnational education activities was to the tune of ~£500 million in 2012/13. The report confirms that "overseas distance learning, at both undergraduate and postgraduate level, generates significantly more revenue than partnership arrangements, both in total and per student per annum. Postgraduate-level distance learning is the largest income stream, with MBA programmes in particular generating approximately £186 million in 2012/13 and other taught postgraduate programmes a further £92 million. Although Business and Management Masters programmes represented 18% of all active transnational education enrolments in 2012/13, they provided 56% of total transnational education revenues." (p.3).
Here are two other relevant charts indicated the scope and nature of TNE activities broken-up by top countries and level of education.
Top 11 countries for UK transnational education delivery ranked by number of programs (Prog) and enrollments (Enrol)
top countries offering branch campsu, online learning to international students
Level of study by transnational education type identified in the census, in terms of number (N) and percentage of programs (row %)
Transnational education strategies continue to be of interest to many stakeholders including higher education institutions and policy-makers. It is a complex and high-risk endeavor for HEIs. Long-term success and sustainability of these models will be dependent on making informed, evidence-driven choices. These two research reports provide comprehensive and timely data on TNE to stakeholders.
Previous related posts from the blog:
Dr. Rahul Choudaha
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November 22, 2014

Five facts challenging leadership of US higher education in attracting international students

Here is the excerpt from my blog "Attracting International Students: Can American Higher Education Maintain its Leadership?" originally published on Huffington Post.
Studying in the U.S. is a dream of many international students. More than 75 percent of international students indicated motivation to "expand career and life opportunities" and "quality higher education options" as the top two reasons that motivated them to study in the U.S., according to a recent survey of nearly 5,000 international students by World Education Services.

With 886,052 international students enrolled in U.S. higher education in 2013/14, the number of international students has increased by 55 percent from 2003/04, according Institute of International Education. It is easy to infer that U.S. has been hugely successful in attracting international students. However, what is lost in the positive growth are some of the acute challenges that can threaten American leadership in attracting and retaining global talent. Here are five facts about international students enrolled in American higher education:

1. Share of U.S. in international student enrollment has decreased
American higher education system is the leading destination for international students, according to OECD. However, post-9/11, destinations like the U.K. and Australia have attracted an increasing number of international students, which has resulted in a decline in market share for the U.S. - from nearly 23 percent in 2000, to 16 percent in 2012.

2. New destinations are further fueling the competition
Emerging markets are offering increasing opportunities for students who want to be part of their growth story and at the same time earn a foreign degree at a lower cost. For example, the number of Korean students going to China has been consistently increasing and at the same time it has been decreasing for the U.S.

3. U.S. institutions have the capacity to enroll more international students
International students account for only four percent of total enrollment in the U.S. higher education as compared to 18 percent in the UK and 19 percent in Australia, according to OECD. Given the size, scale and diversity of the U.S. higher education system, there remains untapped potential to attract more international students.

4. Many institutions are struggling to attract international students
Nearly two-thirds of international students in the U.S. are enrolled in just 300 universities. Given that the U.S. has 4,500 post-secondary degree granting institutions, this concentration implies challenges for rest of the institutions for a variety of controllable (e.g. lack of know-how to recruit and retain students) and uncontrollable reasons (e.g. location).

5. Others are struggling to diversify international student source countries
While overall number of internationals students has increased most of it was driven by growth from a few countries. For example, students from China now form nearly one-third of all international students in the U.S. and their growth have contributed nearly 60 percent of total growth in enrollment in 2013/14.

These five facts illustrate that maintaining U.S. leadership in attracting and retaining global talent will require a lot more to be done in an proactive, informed and collaborative at the policy and institutional levels.

Dr. Rahul Choudaha
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November 16, 2014

As Predicted, Number of Indian Students Studying in the US Increase

In my previous article, "Universities need to get ready for India’s high fliers", I had predicted that the number of globally mobile Indian students will increase and the US higher education will be the biggest beneficiaries. (Related story "Enter the Dragon" in BusinessWorld)
Latest data from Student and Exchange Visitor Program (SEVP), reported enrollment patterns of international students as on October 2014. It confirms the overall trend and increase with Indian numbers:
- Since October 2013, the number of students studying in the US from India increased 28% as compared to 9% for all international students
- US higher education institutions enrolled 134, 292 students from India
- 79% of them were enrolled in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) fields, which offer 29-Optional Practical Training (STEM-extension) option
- 65% of all Indian students(~87,000) were enrolled in only two majors 1) Engineering and 2)Computer Sciences
- 73% of all Indian students were studying for a master's degree
 Dr. Rahul Choudaha (Author)

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How rankings impact institutional strategies and processes? research report from European University Association

What is role of rankings in university strategies and processes? This is the central question of the recent research report released by European University Association and authored by Ellen Hazelkorn, Tia Loukkola and Therese Zhang.  The report entitled "Rankings in Institutional Strategies and Processes: Impact or Illusion?" is based on the survey of 171 higher education institutions from 39 European countries. It is a comprehensive and insightful report that shows that perceived impact of rankings is very high among different stakeholders despite their public denials.  More than half of all the respondents identified that they "have one or several persons at institution level who monitor(s) our position in the rankings regularly." Here are couple of data points indicating that institutional representatives perceive rankings to be of very high importance to prospective students:

The report asserts "...when an institution is analysing the importance of one ranking or another for its activities, it should consider the objective of the ranking, what it measures and whether the indicators are meaningful or useful for the institution’s purposes. Does it make sense to align the institution’s strategies and policies with a particular ranking? What are the implications of doing so? What are the implications of not doing so? And if the indicators or the weightings change – as they so often do – should the institution respond?" (p. 45)
Related stories:
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November 09, 2014

Financial dependency on nonresident and international students: Case of University of California

University of California is considering to increase tuition by up to 5% in each of the next five years. This was inevitable as the public funding continues to decrease. Here are couple of previous blog posts from 2012:
According to the University of California, "The new long-term stability plan for tuition and financial aid proposes that tuition will not increase more than 5 percent annually for five years. For 2015–16, that would mean an increase of $612. Tuition may increase by less than 5 percent — or not at all — depending on the level of state support."
Given that the number of nonresident, including international students at UC campuses have increased at a clipping rate, there is a feeling among residents that they are being displaced. The UC highlights the value addition from nonresident fee that adds to the experiences of the resident students. It asserts that "Each nonresident student brings in approximately $23,000 more per year than in-state students, funds that help support the additional California students and enhance the quality of the education program. Nonresident students also bring a diversity of backgrounds and perspectives that enhances the educational environment of our campuses."
UC Budget for Current Operations provides detailed information on the funding changes in a post-recession environment where nonresident and in particular international student enrollment has become an integral part of the academic and financial equation. Here is an interesting chart comparing the nonresident tuition fee among different public universities. It shows that:
- UC nonresident graduate fee at ~$28,000 is still 70% of Michigan's ~$40,000--indicating UC is still not expensive in comparison to peers
- UC nonresident fee at undergrad is nearly 30% more than graduate nonresident--indicating more revenue potential at undergraduate level

Comparision of Nonresident foreign student fee at public universities
Related News:
Rahul Choudaha (Author)
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November 04, 2014

Foreign students in UK higher education: Mobility and enrollment trends

Universities UK released a research report "International students in higher education: the UK and its competition" that highlights latest enrollment and mobility trends with international (non-European Union) students. This comprehensive report provides an excellent backdrop to issues and challenges UK universities and colleges are facing in a competitive environment of international student recruitment. International students are critical to finances of the higher education sector as it gets around one-eighth of its income from international students’ tuition fees. Here are three interesting data points from the report:

1. Number of international students grew post 9/11, however, it stagnated post global financial recession.
2. China and Malaysia have high proportion of undergraduate students as compared to India and Nigeria at Postgraduate Taught (master's level).
3. Institutions continue to experience decline with India an Nigeria along with China slowing down too.
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October 29, 2014

Towards improved quality standards in transnational education

The quality assurance mechanisms of transnational education (TNE) or cross-border education have not kept pace with the changes in the landscape of its activities and trends is the core argument of the article I co-authored with Richard J Edelstein, a research associate at the Center for Studies in Higher Education, University of California, Berkeley.

TNE is offered in a range of models, including branch campuses, licensed foreign degree programs provided by local institutions, articulation agreements, distance learning degrees and online degrees.

The variety of models is reflective of diverse contexts of source and destination countries, where demand from the emerging segment of ‘glocal’ students - who have aspirations to gain a global education experience, but want to remain in their local region/country - is creating new opportunities for institutions.

The landscape of TNE gets further complicated with the emergence of new distance learning technologies, such as MOOCs, that are changing teaching and learning methods and are not easily incorporated into traditional processes and definitions of quality assurance in higher education.

For example, a recent strategic planning document from MIT forecasts a future where education will be unbundled and degrees will be disaggregated ‘into smaller credential units such as course credentials, sequence credentials and even badges’ with the possibility that ‘the credentialing agency may be different from the institution that offers the course’.

This responsiveness to demand has also led to a wide variation in quality among these programs and models. To varying degrees, these TNE initiatives appear to operate with little regulation or oversight from governments or quality assurance entities in the participating students’ country or in the provider institutions’ home country.

Quality in higher education is not only difficult to measure (as we know from wide-ranging debates about rankings), but also involves diverse approaches to quality assurance. It takes many forms, varying from country to country. For example, terms such as accreditation, recognition and the authority to grant diplomas or degrees can have different meanings and vary by country. Likewise, definitions and processes can differ widely from country to country.

In the context of TNE, quality issues can be addressed by authorities in the country where the provider institution is located and-or in the country where student participants receive TNE programs. Unfortunately, many of the countries where the demand for TNE is high, such as Pakistan, Nigeria and India, do not have strong oversight or clearly established regulations to assure quality. This poses risks to students as well as to institutional providers. In Europe and more broadly there are efforts to establish common standards and processes that are recognized beyond national borders.

The pattern of growth in transnational education is rife with complexity and brimming with innovation. The quality assurance mechanisms of cross border educational activities are lagging behind. This has implications for all stakeholders, including students, institutions and policymakers. To eventually establish an improved quality assurance regime for transnational education that is broadly accepted as legitimate, a concerted, proactive and collaborative effort is required to better understand the nature, scope and scale of transnational education.

Related Links:
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October 15, 2014

Can China become the hub of ‘glocal’ students? CACIE Conference 2014

What are the drivers of international student mobility to China? What are the implications of these trends for Chinese Universities? Can China become the hub of ‘glocal’ students? This is the focus of the session I am chairing at China Annual Conference for International Education (CACIE) Forum on International Student Mobility on Sunday, October 26.

Mobility of Chinese students to the leading destinations like US, UK and Australia is a known trend. However, what has not gained enough attention is the increasing magnetism of China as a destination for international students. In 2009, nearly, 238,000 international students were enrolled in Chinese higher education institutions. In specific, number of foreign students enrolled in degree programs has doubled to more than 100,000 in five years.

However, what is hidden in this growth is the regional mobility of students. For example, two of our every three international students in China are from Asia. More Pakistani students are enrolled in China than they are in the US (~161,000/~238,000). These international students who have aspirations to earn a global education or experience, while staying in the region are defined as ‘glocal’ students’. And, China is emerging as a hub of ‘glocal’ students.

The overarching purpose of this session is to maximize the potential of China as the destination for international students by gaining a deeper understanding of mobility patterns and exploring effective policies, strategies and practices. In specific, the session will discuss the mobility of international students to study in China, along following three strands: 
  • Students—Who are they? Where are they coming from? What are the drivers of mobility? 
  • Institutions—What are the some of the models and strategies for attracting ‘glocal’ students to China? How can Chinese universities attract international students from more diversified source countries? 
  • Policies—What policies and strategies can further increase the attractiveness of China as a destination?
The expert panel will include following:
  • Changjun YUE, Ph.D. Dean, Graduate School of Education, Peking University
  • John Gordon Robertson, Ph.D. Associate Dean for Academic Affairs, New York University Shanghai
  • Julian Chang, Ph.D. Associate Dean at Schwarzman Scholars Program at Tsinghua University
  • Youmin Xi, Ph.D. Executive President of Xi'an Jiaotong-Liverpool University and Pro-Vice-Chancellor of University of Liverpool
  • Nick Miles, OBE Provost and Pro-Vice Chancellor, University of Nottingham Ningbo China
Dr. Rahul Choudaha
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October 04, 2014

Impact assesst as an integral part of internationalization strategy

In a world of increasing fiscal constraints, discourses that emphasize measuring impact continue to gain traction.

Most recently, the Scaling Social Impact series by Harvard Business Review and The Bridgespan Group focuses on how organisations can have a greater social impact. In the same vein, the Stanford Social Innovation Review also has a special section on innovative ways to measure an organisation’s impact on various populations. 

In light of the increasing complexity and changes in higher education, universities engaging in internationalisation need to candidly ask themselves if and how their strategies are in fact meeting the goals and outcomes they have set for themselves. 

Of course, assessment is not something new for many engaged with the internationalisation of higher education. However, current practices often take a one-dimensional, limited view as compared to a big-picture, holistic view of the impact of internationalisation strategies. 

Impact assessment helps make a stronger case to stakeholders of all types who are involved with a university – public funders and legislators, private donors and alumni, university leaders, tuition payers, faculty, staff and students – for funding programmes and strategic initiatives. 

By proactively making impact assessment an integral part of funding decisions, campus international education leaders also demonstrate their confidence by not shying away from showing the outcomes of their programmes and initiatives. 

In addition, impact assessment keeps programmes on track by not only helping to identify areas of improvement and thus deliver better overall outcomes, but also helping to focus on how they affect individuals – particularly faculty and students – at different stages of their engagement. 

Finally, we are in a world of data and technology, which can assist not only in assessing impact in multiple dimensions but also in tracking it over time. This will further intensify the need to build strategies that are measurable, impactful and evidence-based. 

There will be an increasing demand not only to assess the impact on stakeholders but also to understand how the data compare with that coming from peer institutions. 

Currently, we often measure the impact of internationalisation from a rather insular and imperfect viewpoint, which comes down to simply counting the number of globally mobile students. 

This argument has also been suggested by other scholars and practitioners in the field who agree that institutions need to go beyond the rhetoric and numbers and rigorously measure the impact on campus at the level of individuals as well. 

Rahul Choudaha

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September 13, 2014

Presenting at EAIE Conference 2014 on Transnational Education, MOOCs and International Student Recruitment

I will be chairing three sessions at the 26th European Association for International Education’s (EAIE) Conference in Prague on the overarching themes of strategies and trends related to international student recruitment, MOOCs and transnational education or cross-border education. Given below are the details:

Thursday, September 18, 2014 10:00 a.m. - 12:00 p.m.
New Ways of Learning: Digital Hype or Cultural Shift?
Plenary Dialogue that aims to understand emerging trends, opportunities and challenges with the new ways of learning, in particular online learning and MOOCs.
  • Philip Altbach, Research Professor and director of the Center for International Higher Education at Boston College, US 
  • Karl Dittrich, Chair of the Association of Universities in the Netherlands (VSNU), The Netherlands 
  • Hannes Klöpper, Managing Director, Iversity, Germany 
  • Rupert Ward, National Teaching Fellow & Head of Informatics, Department of Informatics, School of Computing and Engineering, University of Huddersfield, UK
Thursday, September 18, 2014 1:30-2:30 p.m.
Transnational Education Strategies: What Works, What Doesn’t?
This session will focus on building sustainable and successful global engagement strategies with a focus on what works and what doesn’t.
  • Robert Coelen, Vice-President International Stenden University of Applied Sciences, Netherlands
  • Nigel Healey, Pro-Vice Chancellor (International) Nottingham Trent University 
  • Eugene Sebastian, Director, Global Engagement Monash University, Melbourne
Friday, September 19, 2014 8:30-9:30 a.m.
Metrics of Success in International Student Recruitment
This session compares models of recruiting international students and corresponding metrics of success.
  • Geoff Moody Associate Vice President of International Programs Southern New Hampshire University, US 
  • Gyongyi Pozsgai Head of the International Relations Office University of Pecs, Hungary
  • Sky Zheng Director of International Recruitment University of Sunderland, UK 
I am also a panelist on a session entitled A MOOC Revolution? Strategic Considerations and Lessons Learned on Friday, September 19, 2014 from 1:30-2:30 p.m. The session is chaired by Trine Sand Director, International Education and Grants at University of Copenhagen.

More details to the sessions are available here

Look forward to the conference and engagement at the sessions. 

Related links:
Preparing for the Future of Transnational Education, The European Association for International Education (EAIE) Blog
A Question of Quality in Transnational Education, European Association for International Education (EAIE) Forum

International Branch Campuses Get Too Much Attention, University World News
Diversification Key to International Higher Education, University World News

Dr. Rahul Choudaha
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September 12, 2014

AACSB Sr. VP on Global Engagement and Changes in Management Education

Dr. Timothy S. Mescon is the fourth president of Columbus State University. He assumed that responsibility in August 2008. Previously, for 18 years, Dr. Mescon was Dean at the Michael J. Coles College of Business at Kennesaw State University in Atlanta, where he held the Tony and Jack Dinos Eminent Scholar Chair of Entrepreneurship. Dr. Mescon is the author of more than 200 articles and cases and has co-authored four books, his latest, Entrepreneurship: Venture Initiation, Management and Development. Additionally, he has co-authored an audiotape series entitled Management Excellence. Dr. Mescon received his Ph.D. from the University of Georgia, MBA from Southern Methodist University and B.A. from Tulane University. In September 2014 he was named as the inaugural Senior Vice President and Chief Officer for Europe, the Middle East and Africa for AACSB International, a position he will formally begin January 2015.
How exciting it is for me to be directly involved in the launch of AACSB International’s upcoming headquarters in Amsterdam, created to serve Europe, the Middle East and Africa. This venture follows an exceptionally successful five-year run of a greenfield office in Singapore, which was established to serve the Asia Pacific region.

With these initiatives in mind it is incredibly important to acknowledge that a core premise, which underlies AACSB’s Accreditation Standards, emphasizes the importance of innovation, impact and engagement. Likewise, it is essential to note that over the past quarter century, AACSB (founded in 1916) has modified its standards in 1991, 2003 and most recently in 2013. Quite simply, these evolving standards are reflective of an organization and a membership that embodies an ethos committed to reinvention, connectivity and a pervasive influence on world-class quality business and management education across the globe.

All of this is within a context of a rapidly changing business environment. Globally, there are massive fluctuations in population, technology and socioeconomics. Concurrent to this, increasing pressure calls for more active community engagement, accountability for actions, and environmental stewardship by both business and management education providers. In turn, AACSB recognizes that today’s business schools must respond to these ever changing conditions by providing distinctive knowledge and skills to students, to allow for graduates to successfully meet the various needs of the publics they will operate.

In order to do this effectively, business schools must mirror the societies in which they function, and constantly evolve curricula, content and programs to meet such needs. As a component to this, the impact on business practice must be assessed by all business programs to better develop the nexus between course and program composition, and bearing on practice and business success.

One of the great attributes of AACSB is how the organization embraces the management concept of equifinality. In the accreditation world this means there are many, many paths that might be followed that would lead to best-of-class academic instruction. In AACSB’s sphere, this includes world class educators delivering business education that provides students with the multifaceted tools required to lead organizations in tough, ever-changing, global environments. This overarching concept encourages diversity in management education. This principle also fully recognizes there are business school differences, cultural idiosyncrasies and national distinctions, and that innovation, impact and engagement look very different in different parts of the world.

To this end, in 2008 the AACSB Board of Directors elected to open an office in Singapore to serve the Asia Pacific region. Since, there has been an explosive growth in business schools both pursuing and reaching AACSB’s accreditation requirements in this vast part of the globe. Predicated on the success in Asia Pacific, the AACSB Board moved to replicate the physical expansion model and open an office to serve Europe, the Middle East and Africa (EMEA). The hard work, diligence and true passion for service to the AACSB membership that Eileen Peacock, (Senior Vice President and Chief Officer of Asia), and her entire team in Singapore have displayed is a benchmark of excellence that I will endeavor to replicate and instill within the EMEA headquarters.

Today EMEA is host to more than 3,700 institutions that award business degrees, which for perspective purposes, is more than double the current number in the US. Currently, AACSB already has a significant presence in the EMEA region. Nearly half of AACSB’s 1,430 member institutions, and fifty percent of its 716 accredited institutions outside of North America are located in EMEA. Among the same demographics of schools, 48 percent of institutions are in various stages of the accreditation process, and in the past two and a half years, more than 40 percent of non-US applications for AACSB membership have come from the EMEA region. Such numbers only reinforce AACSB’s compelling efforts to help business schools in both these developed and developing economies improve their economic impact on the regions they serve, to continue to advance management education, and to promote leading-edge knowledge and thought leadership.

I look forward to the many steps this new and exciting venture will provide. One of my first efforts will be to get reacquainted with my b-school colleagues at AACSB’s 2014 European Annual Conference, to be held October 9-11 in Grenoble. There, more than 200 attendees, across 25+ countries, will explore management education trends specific to Europe and will focus on concepts of ‘Education and Learning for Innovation’. Just as exciting, AACSB’s Europe, Middle East and Africa Accreditation Conference will be held in Istanbul, May 31-June 02, 2015. There we expect more than 200 attendees from some 20+ countries to attend this conference, embracing the opportunities that diversity and differentiation provide. Both will serve as a great jump start on a more focused approach to working aggressively and extensively with Business Schools in Europe, the Middle East and Africa.
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September 01, 2014

Are you ready for Indian highflier students? Emerging opportunities of international recruitment and collaborations

Growth of self-funded academically prepared Indian students
Engaging with Indian higher education has been always been a very complex endeavour for foreign institutions. However, Indian higher education is now priming up for new opportunities to recruit students and build partnerships. This time it is different as the opportunities are largely driven by student demand as opposed to policy reform.

Soon, an emerging segment of Indian students will not only aspire to global education but will also have the ability to afford the experience. This will present new opportunities for institutions interested in engaging with India.

The traditional segment – Strivers
With nearly 200,000 students enrolled outside the country, India is the second largest source of globally mobile students. However, the number of students going abroad has grown at an anaemic pace for the last five years.

Consider the case of the United States, which enrols nearly half of all globally mobile Indian students. The number of Indian students in the US has pretty much remained the same in 2012-13 (96,754) as in 2007-08 (94,563).

One of the reasons is that Indian students are highly dependent on loans from India or financial aid from universities. Post-recession, availability of financial aid became very difficult and at the same time the devaluation of India’s currency increased the cost of studying abroad.

Another characteristic of globally mobile Indian students is that they are primarily enrolled on masters-level programmes in STEM – science, technology, engineering and mathematics – related fields. Three out of four students (78%) from India in the US were enrolled on STEM programmes as compared to only 37% of Chinese or 17% of Korean students.

Looking at globally mobile Indian students from the framework of four segments of international students – high fliers, explorers, strivers and strugglers – typical Indian students were most likely to be strivers.

As I have previously forecast, from the beginning of 2015 the biggest change in the profile of Indian students aspiring to global education will be the emergence of ‘high fliers’ – those who are academically prepared and more importantly have an ability to pay for their experiences.

The emerging segment – High fliers
The emergence of Indian ‘high flier’ students can be traced back to the economic sociology where the changes in the nature of the economy have transformed the structure of society.

In early 1990s, India went through economic reforms which opened up public sectors like telecommunication and financial services to private competition. This reform created high demand for professionals who received high salaries and a premium for their skills.

Complementing the policy reform was an unexpected opportunity offered by global IT services. The ‘Y2K’ computer glitches in the late 1990s gave birth to the Indian IT outsourcing industry which employed thousands of Indian engineers.

These new-age professionals who started their careers in the late 1990s not only had a mindset that valued saving, but also had the chance to become part of the real estate boom in India. The combination of these economic changes and opportunities enabled many professionals to amass substantial financial resources over time.

In addition, these professionals strongly believe in the value of education and hence are ready to spend on the best education for their children. One indicator of this trend of investing in education is the number of students enrolled in high-end international schools offering programmes like the international baccalaureate.

In sum, I define Indian ‘high fliers’ as children born in the late '90s to parents working in new-age industries like IT, financial services and telecommunications. Many of these ‘high flier’ students will start exploring undergraduate colleges in 2015 and many others will apply for masters programmes in a few years’ time.

Getting ready for new opportunities
A new wave of demand for global education among Indian ‘high fliers’ is set to take-off. These children of professionals who started working in new-age industries in the late '90s will create a new opportunity for foreign higher education institutions interested in engaging with India.

Making the most of the opportunity will require overcoming challenges of understanding the unique characteristics and needs of this segment. An upcoming research report will offer insights about the decision-making processes of different segments of Indian bachelor and masters degree-seeking students.

Likewise, institutions interested in building deeper engagement should explore how to create solutions that go beyond expectations for radical policy reforms like the bill that was supposed to allow entry of foreign universities to establish campuses in India.

While the growth of ‘high fliers’ in India will not be as rapid as that in China, forward-looking institutions should make the most of this opportunity by informing and adapting their internationalisation strategies to the unique needs of this segment.

Author Rahul Choudaha

Related blog posts:
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August 26, 2014

Will Indian higher education move from stifling regulation to authentic quality assurance?

Indian higher education is in a state of flux due to an incoherent policy framework. For example, recent scrapping of the four-year degree program at the University of Delhi also affected private universities which were trying to bring four-year liberal arts program in India. What is appalling is that quality assurance framework in India is not only archaic and complex, but also lacks the capability to distinguish wheat from the chaff. While private higher education has its own challenges of quality, there are models of excellence that need to be showcased and encouraged to uplift the quality in private sector. Here is a guest blog from Dr. Vidya Rajiv Yeravdekar, head of Symbiosis International University-one of the premier private deemed-university-on unfair treatment of private higher education in India. She asks why toughest regulations are designed for private higher education which receives no funding while there is no oversight of public institutions which get all their finances from government? - Dr. Rahul Choudaha Vidya Rajiv Yeravdekar is an eminent Indian educationalist. She is renowned for her leadership in educational policy, governance, and research. A member of the Central Advisory Board of Education and former member of the University Grants Commission, she has resolutely advocated for driving higher education forward as a top agenda item. Of special interest to her is the subject of internationalization of higher education. She is also the leader of Symbiosis International University, which is at the forefront of internationalization of higher education in the country.

When will Saraswati (Goddess of learning) win Freedom?

In 1947, India won political freedom—Independence from British colonial rule. In 1991, the country won economic freedom, with the advent of the LPG trio—liberalisation, privatisation, and globalisation. We have come a long way since then, but India is yet to win educational freedom.

First things first, we can only reap what we sow—India’s public expenditure in higher education as percentage of gross domestic product is a low 0.6%. For this reason alone, it is important to open the system to competition from non-Governmental sectors. The advancement of private higher education in India has been driven by a very compelling demand in the higher education demographic, and not public policy.

The last decade has witnessed phenomenal growth of the private sector. In the year 2002, India had nearly 4400 professional colleges, of which about 3150—which account for more than 70%--were in the private sector. In the year 2012, almost 64% of the higher educational institutions were in the private sector. This growth is reflected in other parameters as well: As much as 59% of student enrolment in higher education system is in the private sector.

India has four distinct types of higher education institutions: public universities, which are established by the central government through acts of the parliament; state universities, which are established by state legislation; third, private or “self-financed” universities, which are called “deemed-to-be-universities” and are governed by section three of the University Grants Commission (UGC) Act; and private universities in states, established through the Private University Act.

The commonly called private universities do not receive a single rupee for development from the Indian Government. They subsist on the revenues that they gather from tuition fees. Be that as it may, students, who are the most important stake holders and beneficiaries of the higher education system, clearly prefer private universities to public. This is mainly because the private universities offer more with respect to enhancement of the employability aspect of the student’s repertoire. Moreover, private universities generally offer choices in programs that are career oriented such as engineering, management, and architecture, compared with public universities, which mainly focus on “general education” programs in humanities and social sciences.

Notwithstanding the above, the Indian Government reserves its most stringent regulatory measures for the private institutions. Even more bizarre is that public universities, which receive government funding to the tune of millions of rupees, are allowed to operate with only minimal regulations. In an ironic twist, public intuitions, which do not enrol students to full capacity, are left off scot-free, whereas private universities, which are highly selective in their student intake in spite of higher tuition, are burdened with inordinately heavy regulatory mechanisms. It is distressing to note the paternalistic and directorial stance that the regulatory bodies assume in dealing with the “nuts and bolts” of academic processes. 

The recent nation-wide debates and protests over the University Grants Commission’s stand on four-year undergraduate courses is a case in point. The fact of the Commission’s attack on some such programs, without a modicum of investigation into the structure and components of the programs and the manner in which it was carried out, with shocking disregard for the students and institutions can only be considered worrying. 

Also curious is the case that the regulatory agencies come down the hardest on institutions that enjoy solid reputations for quality and integrity: the IITs, IISc, Symbiosis International University, and Shiv Nadar University. Indeed, it is because these institutions have enjoyed greater autonomy that they tower over the legion of low-achieving state universities, which are the way they are partly because they enjoy far less institutional self-governance. One wonders what conceivable purpose is served by the government agencies’ harmful interference, other than, of course, providing the bureaucrats an opportunity to make a show of being engaged with the higher education system. Carl Lewis’ thought comes to mind: “The task of the modern educator is not to cut down jungles, but to irrigate deserts.”

A long standing debate in India relates to the extent to which the Indian Government be duly and justly allowed to intervene in the supervision of the higher education institutions. Increasingly, it is being suggested that the “invisible hand of the market” be allowed more power to modulate the higher education system through the free play of the rising and dipping arms of the scale of demand and supply. It is time that India wakens to the advancements taking place to its East and West. The judgement of quality of education rests with the student, as much as it does with other entities. More and more, it is being stressed that student perceptions and judgement is an important, albeit neglected, marker of institutional quality. Similarly, it is also being put forth the world over that the boundaries between public and private are superfluous and must be relegated to the background. The present day student is well-informed and discriminating, guided as he is by legion of sources, both official and otherwise.

It is about time that the “licence Raj” be made to give way to regulatory methods that allow for authentic quality assurance. It is hoped that in the manner in which Bharat Mata (Mother India) got freedom in 1947 and Laxmi Mata (Goddess of wealth) got freedom in 1991, Saraswati Mata (Goddess of learning), too, will get freedom in the twenty-first century.
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August 23, 2014

Transnational education: what works, what doesn’t? EAIE session

The future of transnational education (or cross-border) is quite uncertain and an overarching question arises for institutional leaders – are your transnational education strategies future-ready? Are they adaptable and sustainable for a complex environment which is primed to be disrupted by learning models like MOOCs? Do your strategies involve assessing the market demand and adapting to the emergence of a new segment of ‘glocal’ students? How do you plan to de-risk your infrastructure-heavy branch campus strategies?

In addition, the issues of quality are always threatening the growth and innovation in TNE. In my article in the recent issue of EAIE Forum magazine, ‘A question of quality in transnational education’, I ask how traditional definitions, expectations and models of quality assurance will be able to respond to an expanding scale and increasing complexity of TNE activities.
TNE is growing not only in numbers but also in complexity. This makes the future unpredictable and raises the importance of informed strategic choices. How can institutions develop informed and adaptive strategies to manage the risks and maximize the opportunities with TNE without compromising its mission? How can senior international officers make strategic choices about best-fit models, markets and partners which are expected to be not only responsive but also need to be impactful within limited budgets.

At the EAIE Conference in Prague, I am chairing a session entitled ‘Transnational education strategies: what works, what doesn’t?’ (Thursday, Sept 18, 13:30-14:30). It will discuss above questions and more from the perspective of three panelists who will bring diverse perspectives on TNE:  
  • Robert Coelen, Vice President, Stenden University of Applied Sciences, Netherlands
  • Nigel Healey, Pro- Vice Chancellor, Nottingham Trent University, UK 
  • Eugene Sebastian, Director Global Initiatives, Monash University.
What are your thoughts? Share on EAIE LinkedIn Group
Author Dr. Rahul Choudaha
I'm also chairing two more sessions at EAIE
Metrics of Success in International Student Recruitment
New Ways of Learning: Digital Hype or Cultural Shift?
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August 10, 2014

Book: Internationalisation of Higher Education and Global Mobility

student mobility and future of global higher education
Internationalisation of Higher Education and Global Mobility is a recent book which brings together perspectives and reflections of several experts in international higher education.

The book is edited by Bernhard Streitwieser, PhD Assistant Professor of International Education The George Washington University Washington, DC.

The book is organized in three major sections. It starts with big picture trends on internationalization and then focuses on the regional perspectives and finally, concludes with institutional experiences.

In the opening chapter, Challenges and Opportunities for Global Student Mobility in the Future: A Comparative and Critical Analysis, I and Hans de Wit take a deeper drive into the nature and drivers of global mobility and how the future of mobility may look like. We look into the dramatic effect of two external events--9/11 and global financial crisis of 2008--on destination countries along with the demographic changes and economic development at the source countries to take a comparative perspective on the mobility patterns.

It includes expert views from
  • Darla K. Deardorff raises several questions about the rationales for engaging in internationalization in her chapter--Why Engage in Mobility? Key Issues within Global Mobility. She argues for the role of research in gaining a deeper understanding of outcomes, impact, access, virtual mobility and a changing global landscape.  
  • Jane Knight argues in Three Generations of Crossborder Higher Education that cross-border education is now in its third generation characterized by competitiveness-driven commercial model and it has moved away from a development cooperation framework and a collaborative/partnership model.
  • Bernd Wächter in his chapter Recent Trends in Student Mobility in Europe takes a closer look into the diversity of mobility patterns in Europe. He illustrates the need for better data collection and analysis to deconstruct the complexity and nature of mobility in Europe.
  • Anthony C. Ogden, Bernhard Streitwieser & Emily R. Crawford in their chapter Empty Meeting Grounds: Situating Intercultural Learning in US Education Abroad critique the traditional programming components of US study abroad and argue for a change in the way transformational learning experiences are conceptualized and assessed for their impact.
In sum, the book is a fine collection of diverse, insightful and critical perspectives from higher education experts on the changing nature of internationalization and global mobility.
Author Rahul Choudaha, PhD
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August 03, 2014

Statistics on enrollment of international students in STEM programs in the US universities

Demand for STEM programs among international students have been consistently increasing as the pathways for career opportunities in the US have been expanding with more jobs and availability of additional 17-months for students on Optional Practical Training (OPT) in STEM programs. In addition, industry demand for new fields like cyber security and data science and pressure to expand new sources of revenue has let to launch/expansion of programs by universities.  

Given below are three insightful slides from SEVP of USICE on enrollment pattern of STEM students in the US.

The statistics reveal concentration by source countries, field of studies and destination states. This poses challenges for institutions not in the natural destination states to attract international students and for institutions in the top states to diversify the source countries of students.  

1. More than one-third (35%) of all international students in the US are enrolled in STEM programs. Nearly one-sixth (15%) of all international students in the US are enrolled in "Engineering" programs.

2. Nearly one-third (31%) of all international students in STEM programs are enrolled in only three states--California, New York and Texas. Interestingly, nearly 45% of all international students in Indiana, Texas and Michigan are enrolled in STEM programs. 

3. Three out of four students (78%) from India is enrolled in STEM program--highest proportion than any other country. Saudi Arabia and China are more STEM-focused than Japan and South Korea. 

Author Dr. Rahul Choudaha 
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July 20, 2014

Research on Mobility of Foreign Students and its Implications for Policy

Here are two interesting research articles, I came across on international student mobility.

1. How to Attract Foreign Students by Arnaud Chevalier

In this paper, author provides an overview on how international student mobility can be beneficial for all participants including migrating students and those who remain at home, as well as home and host countries.

It shares a simple model of student migration based on the economic models where "individuals invest in education to increase future income. They choose to invest if the income increase over their lifetime is greater than the cost (including effort) incurred for their education. The decision to study abroad is determined in this model by the costs of education in both countries, the differences in the returns to skills in both countries, and the costs of (return) migration—including non-financial costs such as family circumstances."

The author asserts that "[o]pen-visa policies that allow foreign graduates to remain in the country after completing their studies and a thriving labor market are two factors that attract more and better student migrants."

2. The Determinants of International Mobility of Students by Michel Beine, Romain Noël and Lionel Ragot

In this paper, authors have analyzed the determinants of the choice of destination of international students. They use a multi-origin multi-destination framework to identify the main factors at stake. "Relying on a small theoretical model of human capital investment, [they] focus on two types of factors: those affecting the migration costs such as distance and migrants’ network at destination and those affecting the attractiveness of the destination such as the quality of universities, education costs and host capacity." The authors estimate the importance of those factors using data covering more than 180 origin countries and 13 OECD destination countries which cover more than 75 % of the total international student migration flows. Two major findings are:
- Network effect: The presence of home country nationals at the destination country increases its attractiveness.
- Quality of education: The perception of quality of institutions adds to the attractiveness of the destinations.
The research findings imply that while international student mobility is complex and it is important to understand its interconnection with national policies--both host and destination countries have a role to play in making sure that brain exchange pattern is mutually beneficial. 
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July 09, 2014

Enrollment statistics of international high schools students in the US

What are the trends with the international students enrolled in the US secondary schools? This is the overarching question addressed by a recent report published by the Institute of International Education “Charting new pathways to higher education: International secondary students in the United States” which offers insights for enrollment and recruitment strategies. It notes that in October 2013 there were nearly 73,000 international students were pursuing a secondary-level education in the US, with nearly two-third enrolled for a full diploma (48,632).

Here are the key highlights:

  • What the leading source countries for international high school students? 
US high schools are even more dependent on China as compared to universities and colleges. 

China is the largest source country of high schools students to the US

  • How do enrollment of high school students differ in terms of control of institution --private vs. public?
Majority of international high school students are enrolled in private institutions.

public universities enroll most of international students

  • How do enrollment of high school students differ by the size of private school?
Two-third of all international high school students on F-1 visa are enrolled in small to mid-size institutions.

enrollment of high school students by size of private institution

Author: Dr. Rahul Choudaha
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July 04, 2014

How to maximize impact of internationalization strategies?

Why internationalization strategies of universities often deliver sub-optimal results? Why international efforts in many institutions struggle to get adequate resources? Why some institutions go through mission-creep and get distracted about their purpose and approaches of going global?

These are some of the question answered in our recent piece entitled "Higher Education Internationalization – What gets measured, gets funded" published in University World News by me and Eduardo Contreras Jr of Harvard Graduate School of Education.

We argue that despite growing interest in internationalization, institutions have not maximized its potential due to lack of attention to two extremes of the internationalization process.

"First, the definition of internationalization is not adapted to higher education institutions’ institutional mission and context. Second, adequate efforts are not being made in assessing the impact of internationalization on the campus community."

Defining internationalization: Mission over movement 

The definition of internationalization must be localized to fit the specific needs of an individual campus in three critical areas: people, ideas and places. In establishing parameters for success in these areas, a principle of mission over movement can be applied.

"In the same way that ‘mind over matter’ can help the strong among us to avoid the empty calories in an extra slice of cake, mission over movement can help leaders focus on the substance of internationalization at their campuses over the perceived glory of goals that do not fit the mission of their institutions."

Assessing internationalisation: Impact over input

One of the reasons why internationalisation does not get the attention it deserves is the limited demonstrable impact of internationalisation at the campus level.

This is where, impact assessment can feed into strategy formulation as it helps in moving from anecdotal, intuition-driven strategies to more evidence-driven strategies.

Successful strategies for comprehensive internationalization would not only focus on asking for resources (inputs), but would also put corresponding efforts into assessing the impact of internationalization at all levels by investing in systematic data collection, analysis and dissemination.

We know that ‘what gets measured, gets done’, but perhaps the new mantra is ‘what gets measured, gets funded’.

Measuring impact of university internationalization strategies
Source: ULM

Dr. Rahul Choudaha
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