Trends, insights and research to inform growth and innovation strategies in international higher education.

May 24, 2017

NAFSA research on landscape of third-party pathway partnerships in the US

A recent report released by NAFSA: Association of International Educators aims to understand the scope of third-party pathway partnerships in the context of the US higher education and the viewpoints of international educators on these partnerships. The purpose was to establish a baseline of evidence on an evolving partnership model with private providers for international student enrollment.

Dr. Rahul Choudaha of DrEducation was the principal investigator of this commissioned research project entitled Landscape of Third-Party Pathway Partnerships in the United States. He was also the principal investigator of NAFSA's previous research report--Bridging the Gap: Recruitment and Retention to Improve International Student Experiences.

Here is the Inside Higher Ed article covering the report. 

NAFSA research on third-party partnerships for international student enrollment by DrEducation


While traditional Intensive English Programs have been existing for a long time, pathway programs offered by private providers in the US started are a relatively recent trend. The program started almost a decade back around the global financial recession. This research focuses on privately-run ESL pathway programs with credit bearing courses linked to partnering universities.

The research was conducted in two primary phases.

Phase One: To identify characteristics of institutions partnering with third-party pathway providers based on analysis of publicly available data, review of literature, websites of providers, and related news articles. There were 45 institutions partnering with eight third-party providers as on  April 1, 2016.

Phase Two: To examine the reasons and considerations for working with third-party pathway providers by collecting primary data through focus groups and survey of NAFSA institutional members. The survey yielded a response rate of 14.7 percent from 347 international educators from 261 institutions.

Highlights from Phase One:
  • 374 institutions in the US enrolled more than 500 international students in Fall 2014. Only 27 (4%) of them were in partnership with a third-party pathway provider as on April 1, 2016. 
  • 39 partnering institutions enrolled 56,560 international students in fall 2014, representing 6% of all international students in the US (data for six institutions was unavailable). Enrollment data of international students in specific pathway programs was unavailable. 
  • Most of the public institutions in partnership were large in terms of enrollment (17 institutions had enrollments of 10,000 and above). There are 161 universities in the United States that meet these characteristics, so 11 percent of them are working with third-party pathway providers.
  • Most of the private institutions were comprehensive master’s colleges and universities (10 institutions had enrollment between 1,000 and 9,999). There are 376 colleges and universities in the United States that meet these characteristics, so less than 3 percent of them are working with third-party pathway providers.
Highlights from Phase Two:

Top reasons cited for partnering with third-party pathway providers 
To access recruitment network of pathway provider
To expand enrollment of international students at the bachelor’s level
To improve yield of international enrollment
To make up for lack of in-house expertise
To enhance diversity of international enrollment

Top reasons cited for not partnering with third-party pathway providers 
Fear of loss of academic standards
Concern for loss of control of international admissions process
University-governed intensive English program is working well
Terms of contract with provider (i.e., length and cost)
Prefer to develop in-house expertise

Considerations cited for working with third-party pathway providers 
Define academic qualifications and preparation of students
Ensure transparency of recruitment practices
Align with institutional goals and culture
Involve campus stakeholders during decisionmaking
Understand key responsibilities of institution versus provider

The report contains several cross-tabs which illustrate the how these findings differ by institutions currently in partnership and those who are not.

Given the reality of the financial pressures that many higher education institutions are facing, there is an increasing interest in expanding international student enrollment. This research is one of the first efforts conducted in the US to understand the scope and viewpoints of international educators on third-party pathway partnerships. This is the beginning of efforts to uncover more evidence and insights that can support informed decisions which have high impact on campuses communities including students, staff and educators.



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May 19, 2017

New destinations compete to attract international students in times of anti-immigrant rhetoric in UK and US

The number of globally mobile international students doubled to reach 4 million between the period 1999 and 2013. Every third globally mobile student is enrolled in an American or British institution of higher education. However, with the Brexit and American Presidential elections, 2016 is likely to affect the choices of many international students and prompting them to consider alternative destinations.

In my keynote presentation, “Three Waves of International Student Mobility: Implications for Recruitment and Partnership Strategies,” at International Universities Networking Conference - IUNC Eurasia 2017 in Moscow, Russia, I highlighted that institutions are facing an environment of hyper-competition, uncertainty and declining resources for attracting international students.

In contrast to anti-immigrant narratives in the UK and the US, Ireland extended the option of staying back to 24 months for graduates at postgraduate and doctorate level and recognizing the importance of gaining work experience as one of the key motivations for many international students aiming to earn a degree abroad.

Jerke Verschoor, Director, Nuffic Neso Russia, an office promoting study in Holland noted that “with the Ruble devaluation a couple of years back, the Euro became more expensive but relatively less so than the American dollar and the British pound. This is obviously in favor of EU countries, such as the Netherlands.” He added that the US elections and the Brexit might also have an effect on student mobility from Russia favorable for the Netherlands.

Bogdan Voronovskiy, General Director, Eastern European University Association noted that Russia serves as a bridge to Europe, emerging CIS countries and Asia. With China’s One Belt, One Road initiative, Russia will become even more important launching pad for international students.

Voronovskiy added that Russian institutions must do more to provide language and cultural support to international students. New programs in English that adapt to the new economic environment are critical in improving the attractiveness of Russia as a destination of choices for international students.

Valeriya Kotelnikova, Head of International Cooperation at the State University of Management in Moscow noted that “while most of our degree programs are in Russian we are constantly working towards growing enrollment in our academic exchanges and double degree programs to internationalize student experience.”

In sum, as the competition of international students intensifies, government policies must align with supporting institutions in attracting global talent. Likewise, institutions must pursue a more strategic approach to growing and diversifying enrollment in a competitive landscape.

-Based on article published in HuffPost-
-Related webinar on international student mobility-
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May 13, 2017

Changing rationales for short-term education abroad programming by Anthony Ogden

As U.S. education abroad enrollments have shifted in favor of short-term programming, so too has the broader rationale for why institutions are investing in education abroad initiatives. Whether the popularity of short-term programming is being driven by changing student interests and demands, or whether institutional leadership and increasing faculty engagement are dictating and guiding the direction of program development, the fundamental rationales for why short-term education abroad programs are being pursued and how they are developed are most certainly changing.  Because of these shifting interests, there are now arguably four broad rationales driving education abroad program development. 

1. Language acquisition and cultural knowledge
2. Intercultural competency development
3. Discipline specific learning
4. Experiential learning

For decades, institutions have leveraged education abroad programming with the goal to enhance student learning in the areas of language acquisition and cultural knowledge. Developing proficiency in a foreign language was once a major consideration for students in choosing to study abroad. This is less often the case today and in effect, the majority of established education abroad programs no longer impose a language pre-requisite. While foreign language learning remains very much a central and viable rationale for developing and promoting education abroad, it is no longer the leading rationale for doing so.

Developing intercultural competency has also been a long-held and widely regarded rationale driving education abroad.  With the development of the Intercultural Development Inventory (IDI) and other measures of intercultural competence, much attention and effort of late has been given to assessing the extent to which education abroad participation can actually lead to measurable gains in this area. The assumption has been that education abroad programming can be strategically leveraged to support the development of global-ready graduates who are able to work effectively in intercultural settings.



As short-term program participation has increased, particularly in the area of faculty-directed programming, the rationales for education abroad have expanded to include an emphasis on discipline-specific learning. Innovative models for faculty-directed programming have allowed more faculty members to design short-programs abroad with the primary purpose of engaging their students in the study of their disciplines in an international context.  It is one thing to study Italian art history in a U.S. classroom, for example, but quite another to see the art work first hand and to interact with members of the communities that produced it. An increasing number of faculty members recognize the importance of graduating students who understand the international dimensions of their chosen disciplines and the need to establish and nurture global networks to support future careers. Short-term education abroad programs have provided these faculty members with an ideal means through which they can jumpstart discipline-specific, international learning.

In much the same way, short-term education abroad programs have presented a means through which to involve students in other forms of engaged learning, such as international internships, global service-learning, and undergraduate research. Campus offices that may have once been removed from education abroad programming, such as career centers, service-learning centers, and undergraduate research offices, are now active partners in developing successful short-term programs abroad that provide students with an array of opportunities to develop career readiness skills, civic engagement skills, and international research networks.   

In short, the rationales of education abroad programming have expanded from long-held loyalties to semester-length and full-year programs designed primarily for language acquisition and intercultural competency development to include short-term programs driven by expanded rationales such as discipline-specific learning and experiential learning. All four rationales are equally viable and important, but even these are perhaps being overshadowed by the growing undercurrent within U.S. higher education that prioritizes the notion that one pursues higher education solely for the purposes of career readiness and employability. In other words, the value of education abroad, whether short-term or otherwise, is being increasingly scrutinized by students (and their parents) on terms of its value with regard to enhancing one’s long-term career prospects.  

Anthony C. Ogden is executive director of Education Abroad and Exchanges at Michigan State University, which is one of the largest education abroad offices in the US. Ogden earned his master’s degree in international and intercultural management at the SIT Graduate Institute and his PhD at The Pennsylvania State University in educational theory and policy with a dual title in comparative and international education. A career international educator, Ogden has published numerous articles and book chapters on important topics related to international education, including a new co-edited book, International higher education’s scholar-practitioners: Bridging research and practice.
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May 02, 2017

NAFSA 2017: Presentation on pathway research and internationalization strategies

Nearly 10,000 international education professionals will attend NAFSA’s 2017 Annual Conference & Expo in Los Angeles from May 28- June 2. The conference will offer 200+ sessions and 40+ workshops divided into various Knowledge Communities.

I will be participating in following two sessions. As a former member (Chair Stream 2014-2016) of the International Education Leadership Knowledge Community (IEL KC), I will also be attending the update meeting.

Strategic planning trends leadership NAFSA 2017



Results from NAFSA’s Research on Pathway Programs in the United States 
Tuesday, May 30, 2:30 PM - 3:30 PM
This session shares the results of NAFSA’s commissioned research on pathway programs in the United States, including the characteristics of institutions that partner with private providers and the perceptions of international educators regarding rationales and considerations for third-party pathway partnerships.
Learning Objectives:
Examine the results of NAFSA’s commissioned research.
Identify key reasons and consideration for or not working with pathway programs.
Recognize diverse experiences of campus stakeholders in working with pathway providers.
  • Joann Ng Hartmann, Senior Director, IEM-ISS Services, NAFSA Office (Chair)
  • Rahul Choudaha, Principal Researcher & CEO, DrEducation
  • Mark Hoffman, Vice Provost of International Programs, Oregon State University
  • Heather Housley, Director, International Student & Scholar Services, Georgia State University
Preparing for the Future: Aligning Institutional Strategic Planning with Emerging Trends 
Wednesday, May 31, 1:15 PM - 2:15 PM
The confluence of cost pressures, demographic shifts, and technological forces is shaping the context of global higher education. In this interactive session, senior international officers at diverse institutions share their perspectives on how they are preparing for the future and aligning their strategic plans with the emerging trends.
Learning Objectives:
Explore the importance of long-range strategic planning despite pressures for short-term results.
Recognize key global issues and trends that influence strategic plans.
Identify good practices and diverse approaches of infusing global trends in developing strategic plans.
  • Rahul Choudaha, Principal Researcher & CEO, DrEducation (Chair)
  • Joe Chicharo, Deputy Vice-Chancellor (Academic), University of Wollongong
  • K. Jimmy Hsia, Vice Provost for International Programs and Strategy, Carnegie Mellon University
  • Cheryl Matherly, Vice President/Vice Provost International Affairs, Lehigh University
 Look forward to be in LA and meeting colleagues in international education.

- Rahul Choudaha
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May 01, 2017

Accelerating campus internationalization with technology: Emerging trends and strategies

I delivered the opening keynote session entitled “Accelerating Campus Internationalization with Technology: Emerging Trends and Strategies” at The Lewy Global Education Technology Forum at the School of International Training (SIT) in Brattleboro, Vermont.

The Forum deliberated on the role of emerging technologies and innovation in helping higher education institutions to fulfill their educational mission in areas of learning, collaboration, inclusion, and administration.

role of online learning in reaching glocal students

The focus of my keynote was to encourage higher education institutions to leverage technology in expanding access and providing global learning experiences to their students.

As technology-enabled solutions become increasingly sophisticated, students are not only embracing this change; they are also expecting more from institutions. For example, MOOCs (massive open online courses) have gone from being revolutionary to redundant to now resurgent again with a varying degree of acceptance by academia. In contrast, the student enrollments in MOOCs continue to grow at a rapid pace.

In an environment of declining resources for institutions, there is an increasing need to leverage technology to enhance operational efficiency. One way to approach sustainability is through shared services models and consortia. Shared services can help in improving operational efficiencies, reducing duplication and sharing fixed costs. Consider the example of any of the MOOCs platforms like edX or Coursera which are bringing together several institutions in the U.S. and abroad to achieve common goals of access and global engagement.

On the student side technology allows institutions to experiment with new models of outreach. ‘Glocals’ are an expanding segment of students seeking international education experience/credential while staying in the country or region. Consider the case of Georgia Tech’s Online Master of Science in Computer Science (OMS CS) costs under $7,000 over five terms. Non-resident tuition fee for on-campus master’s is eight times as much that of the online master’s. Almost one out of every five students in this online program are prototypical ‘glocal’ students who are based overseas.

These two megatrends on the institutional and student side show that technology can offer new opportunities of accelerating campus internationalization. At the same time, technology is not a panacea. At its core, teaching and learning is a human interaction process, but it can reach more students in a more efficient manner through enabling technology solutions.

This is an excerpt from my blog published in HuffPost.
Related webinar: Embracing Technology for Global Engagement: A Leadership Challenge and Opportunity

-Dr. Rahul Choudaha
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April 16, 2017

Brand awareness and feeder partnerships critical for success with international student recruitment: Global webinar

Over 1,200 professionals from around the world registered to attend the global online discussion (webinar) on "International student mobility trends: Shifting recruitment priorities and strategies."   Around 37% of the registrants were from the USA, 12% from the United Kingdom, 6% from Canada and just over 45% from the rest of the world. Seventy percent of the professionals indicated that they have more than 10 years of working in higher education.

University World News, DrEducation and StudyPortals partnered to bring this webinar to a global audience. This webinar is the fourth in the series of webinars on international higher education hosted by University World News and organised by DrEducation. In total, over 4,000 people from around the world have registered for these webinars.

Request the recording (if you already have the password, please enter below)



Rahul Choudaha, moderator of the webinar and CEO of DrEducation, noted: “With the political and economic changes in the key source and destination countries, we are in the midst of a perfect storm for international student mobility. In this new context of competition and uncertainty, institutions must innovate to grow international enrolment and support student success.”

An expert panel of senior professionals from Canada, the UK and the US shared their perspectives and experiences on how they are adapting to a new environment of competition and uncertainty.
  • Kathleen Massey is University Registrar and Executive Director, Enrolment Services at McGill University, Canada 
  • Vincenzo Raimo is Pro-Vice-Chancellor (Global Engagement) at the University of Reading, UK
  • Adina M. Lav is Assistant Provost for International Enrollment at the George Washington University, US 







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April 07, 2017

Dr. Rahul Choudaha is a keynote speaker at Lewy Global Education Technology Forum @ SIT

Global Education Technology Forum Keynote Speaker Rahul Choudaha



The Lewy Global Education Technology Forum at the School of International Training (SIT), Brattleboro, VT will bring together leaders in the field of education to discuss challenges and opportunities to improve our use of technology to teach, to collaborate, and to include a diversity of students, faculty, and staff in achieving our mission of education the next generation of global leaders.

Dr. Rahul Choudaha of DrEducation will be delivering a keynote on Tuesday, April 25 on "Accelerating Campus Internationalization with Technology: Emerging Trends and Strategies."

Here is the brief description:
As technology solutions become increasingly sophisticated and innovative, students are not only embracing this change, they are also expecting more. However, higher education institutions in general lag behind in technology innovation and student adoption. For example, MOOCs (massive open online courses) have gone from being revolutionary to redundant with varying degrees of acceptance by academia. However, as institutional resources decline and technology matures, many institutions are discovering that it’s time to explore, experiment, and engage through technology. We’ll look at the promise of technology for campus internationalization – including emerging approaches, opportunities and challenges for faculty and administrators -- and how institutions can leverage technology to accelerate internationalization.

Here is a summary of blog published in Huffington Post.

The Forum sessions will explore a wide-ranging topics of current interests and emerging innovations related to technology spread across four different themes--Technology for Inclusion, Technology for Collaboration, Technology for Administration, and Technology for Learning. Here is the list of session titles.

  • Cross-Cultural E-Mentoring to Develop Problem-Solving and Online Learning Communities
  • Maptia, Medium, and Storify: The Future of Online Collaborative Writing
  • RoadAmico, A Hosted Platform for Place-Base, Experiential Learning
  • Using Podcasts for Independent Study Project Presentations
  • Meeting Students in Cyberspace: Field Course Academic Blogs
  • Usability Testing for a Global Audience
  • Accessible Virtual Platforms
  • Climate Change: Digital Technologies for Modelling and Comparative Collaboration
  • Innovations in Enhancing Student Stipend Safety
  • Education in the Digital Era: Practices and Implications
  • Digital Games & Gamification: Turkish Games
  • Tech Solutions for Teaching Research Methods and Ethics
  • Transitioning to the Virtual Learning Classroom
  • Carol Richmond, Faculty, University of New Mexico and Assumption College
  • Developing Online Writing Courses That Support Active, Project-Based Learning
  • An Educational Approach to Media Literacy: Examples from Latin America
  • Five Ways to Work Faster with Project Management Software
  • Virtual Meetings: An Examination of Challenges, Tools, and Solutions
  • Collaborating for Learning Using Modern Productivity Tools
  • The Impact of Online Collaboration on Teacher Performance
  • Donald B. Watt Library: Search!
  • Transforming an Experiential Youth Program to the Digital Sphere
  • Moodle: Tune-Up
  • Digital Media Literacies: Developing Learner Independence, Providing Lifelong Benefits
  • Using Storify as a Learning Tool
  • SharePoint: What Is It and How Will It Be Useful to Me?
  • Your Course and Copyright

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April 06, 2017

New book: NAFSA's Guide to International Student Recruitment


Assessing International Student Recruitment and Enrollment Strategies Return on Investment ROI
NAFSA released the third edition of the Guide to International Student Recruitment. This edition compiles the latest tools, resources, and strategies from the professionals in the field of international enrollment management. As the Table of Content shows that this book distills deep and wide professional expertise of the authors in its 275 pages.

The editor of the book Jessica Black Sandberg noted in her introduction--"These may feel like uncertain times for our profession, but international education has always been at the mercy of geopolitical conditions. While the ebb and flow of student traffic has fluctuated over the last several decades, the general trend has always been upward. One step back. Two steps forward. Worries about the political landscape should not hold us back. They should propel us forward. This book was designed to provide you with the tools to build a robust, precise, and effective recruitment strategy that reflects the goals and challenges of your particular operation. It is meant to serve as both a primer and a lasting resource."

I had an honor to contribute the final chapter on Assessing Return on Investment.  In an article published in MIT Sloan Management Review, the authors of “The Metrics That Marketers Muddle” argue “that the biggest challenge with ROI isn’t a technical deficiency but confusion over how it is used.” Given the pressures of increasing revenue and reducing cost, it is measuring the effectiveness of international student recruitment is becoming integral to defining and executing recruitment strategies.

Introduction | Jessica Black Sandberg
1 A History of International Recruitment in U.S. Higher Education | Stephen C. Dunnett
2 Ethics in International Student Recruitment | Panetha Theodosia Nychis Ott
3 Assessing Your Institution’s Readiness to Recruit International Students | Salma Benhaida
4 Developing Human Resource Capacity for International Recruitment | David L. Di Maria
5 Creating an International Recruitment Plan | Julie Sinclair and Patty Croom
6 Building Foreign Educational Credential Evaluation Expertise | Linda Riley
7 Exploring Diversity Beyond the Big 3: China, India, and South Korea | Ben Iverson
8 Effective Marketing Practices for International Student Recruitment: Simplifying the Complexity of Academic Global Branding| Ben Waxman and Cathryn Andrews
9 International Recruitment Travel | Stavroula Boutsis
10 Recruitment Fairs | Marjorie S. Smith
11 It Takes a Village: Recruiting, Enrolling, and Supporting Sponsored Students at Your Institution | Gabriele Schmiegel
12 Recruiting International Students at U.S. High Schools | Jessica Black Sandberg
13 Recruiting via Conditional Admission and Pathway Programs | Jim Crawley
14 Alumni Involvement in International Recruitment Initiatives | Aaron Zdawczyk
15 Partnering With Agents | Stephanie Scoby
16 Recruitment Strategies for Intensive English Programs | Lisa Kraft and Nadia Redman
17 Making the Case for International Recruitment at Community Colleges | Marci Fradkin
18 International Recruitment for Graduate Programs | William Elliott
19 Assessing Return on Investment in International Student Recruitment| Rahul Choudaha

- Rahul
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April 03, 2017

Research on international student experiences: Special issue of Studies in Higher Education

Studies in Higher Education is a peer-reviewed journal with the 2015 Impact Factor of 1.222. The recent Special Issue (Vol. 42, No. 5) of the Journal focused on "The international student experience: voices and perspectives."

Mary-Louise Kearney and Daniel Lincoln, Co-editors, Special Issues write "the experience of studying abroad has moved centre stage, due to exponentially increasing student demand from emerging economies and to the global nature of advanced knowledge. Universities, for their part, compete aggressively to attract top talent and shore up their international rankings. The international student experience lies at the centre of this dynamic."

This special issue was coordinated by Tang Tang Heng of the National Institute of Education (NIE), Singapore as the guest editor. I had an opportunity to be part of the special issue by contributing the opening article that sets the context of the student mobility in three overlapping waves of seven years each.

International Student Experience Research Studies in Higher EducationForeword
  • The international student experience: voices and perspectives, Mary-Louise Kearney & Daniel Lincoln 
Understanding the International Student Experience
  • Three waves of international student mobility (1999–2020), Rahul Choudaha 
  • Voices of Chinese international students in USA colleges: ‘I want to tell them that … ’, Tang T. Heng
  • Internationalization of Canadian higher education: discrepancies between policies and international student experiences, Yan Guo & Shibao Guo 
  • Neo-nationalism in higher education: case of South Africa, Jenny J. Lee 
Supporting the International Student Experience
  • Supporting international students through strengthening their social resources, Nancy Arthur 
  • Faculty as bridges to co-curricular engagement and community for first-generation international students, Chris R. Glass, Peggy Gesing, Angela Hales & Cong Cong
  • Higher education institutions and the administration of international student rights: a law and policy analysis, Gaby Ramia
  • Erasmus students’ involvement in quality enhancement of Erasmus+ mobility through digital ethnography and ErasmusShouts, Manja Klemenčič, Martin Žnidaršič, Anže Vavpetič & Matej Martinc 
Reimagining the International Student Experience
  • Problematising and reimagining the notion of ‘international student experience’, Elspeth Jones
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March 14, 2017

Webinar: International student recruitment strategies in times of shifting mobility patterns


webinar moderated by Rahul Choudaha on student mobility US, UK, Australia, Canada, India, China, Saudi Arabia, Korea




The UK and the US are set on a path to creating more barriers to attracting and retaining international students. The two largest source countries of international students – China and India – are also experiencing economic challenges which in turn are likely to decelerate the ambitions and ability of students to go abroad.

The combination of these changes in the leading source and destination countries indicates that institutions must embrace themselves for a new environment of uncertainty, hyper-competition, and turbulence.

University World News, DrEducation, and StudyPortals partnered to convene an hour-long, free webinar on 12 April. It brought together a panel of experts to examine how they are adapting institutional strategies in a new environment. What are the strategic options institutions are considering in response to this turbulence? The discussion highlighted diverse perspectives to inform international enrollment strategies.

Access the Recording of the Webinar 

The hour-long online event received 1,243 registrations with around 37% from the USA, 12% from the United Kingdom, 6% from Canada and just over 45% from the rest of the world.

This webinar is the fourth in the series of webinars on international higher education hosted by University World News and organized by DrEducation. In total, over 4,000 people from around the world have registered for these webinars.

The panel was moderated by Rahul Choudaha, CEO, DrEducation and author of the recent article, “Three Waves of International Student Mobility (1999–2020)” published in Studies in Higher Education.

The expert panel includes:
  • Kathleen Massey is University Registrar and Executive Director, Enrolment Services at McGill University, Canada 
  • Vincenzo Raimo is Pro-Vice-Chancellor (Global Engagement) at the University of Reading, UK
  • Adina M. Lav is Assistant Provost for International Enrollment at the George Washington University, US 
Articles related to the webinar
Brand is key challenge for international recruitment
Seeking globally mobile students in a world in turmoil
A perfect storm for international student mobility?


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